Regarding alternatives methods of potential transmission:
Recent case reports and confirmation of Zika virus in semen samples raise the concern for potential for sexual transmission of Zika virus. The CDC recommends that pregnant women whose male partners have or are at risk for Zika virus infection consider using barrier contraception (condoms) or abstaining from sexual intercourse.
There are currently no recommendations for abstinence from breastfeeding in women with potential exposure.
Every patient with a travel history to endemic areas within 2 to 12 weeks should get serum serological screening for Zika virus, regardless of presence of Zika symptoms. Follow the above algorithms for ultrasound surveillance.
Amniocentesis for RT-PCR for Zika virus should be considered for all women who have positive IgM serum tests.
If microcalcifications or microcephaly are present on fetal ultrasound, the patient should have serologic testing, even if previous tests were negative. Amniocentesis for Zika virus RT-PCR testing should also be considered.
Because Zika is an emerging disease, we recommend that providers and patients continue to stay up to date by frequently checking the CDC website (http://www.cdc.gov/zika), as information is updated as it becomes available.
1. Petersen EE, Staples JE, Meaney-Delman, D, et al. Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak — United States, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65:30–33. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6502e1
2. Oster AM, Brooks JT, Stryker JE, et al. Interim Guidelines for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus — United States, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65(Early Release):1–2. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6505e1er