Ashraf Fouda, MD

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Management of Umbilical Cord Prolapse

August 10th 2011

• Medline and NHS databases • Women’s Hospitals Australasia – Clinical Practice Guidelines - Cord Prolapse – Last Reviewed June 2005 • RCOG - Green-top Guideline - No. 50 - April 2008   Levels of Evidence   Evidence Category and Source   Grading of Recommendations   Recommendation Grade  Definition Cord prolapse has been defined as descent of the umbilical cord through the cervix alongside (occult) or past the presenting part (overt) in the presence of ruptured membranes.   Definition Cord presentation is the presence of one or more loops of umbilical cord between the fetal presenting part and the cervix, without membrane rupture.   Background • The overall incidence of cord prolapse ranges from 0.1% 0.6% • With breech presentation, the incidence is just above 1% • Male fetuses seem to be predisposed. • The incidence is higher in multiple gestations.  Background Cases of cord prolapse appear consistently in perinatal mortality enquiries, and one large study found a perinatal mortality rate of 91 per 1000.  Background • Prematurity and congenital malformation account for the majority of adverse outcomes associated with cord prolapse in hospital settings, but cord prolapse is also associated with birth asphyxia and perinatal death with normally-formed term babies, particularly with home birth. • Delay in transfer to hospital appears to be an important factor with home birth.  Background • Asphyxia may also result in hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and cerebral palsy. • The principal causes of asphyxia in this context are thought to be:

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