Author | Eran Casiff, MD

Articles

Torch Infections and Prenatal Ultrasound Findings

August 09, 2011

Article

TORCH INFECTIONS AND PRENATAL ULTRASOUND FINDINGS Eran Casiff M.D. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Kaplan Medical Center Rehovot 76100, Israel Limitations • Most infected fetuses are sonographically normal • Ultrasound findings may change with time • no correlation with infant outcome Cerebral Ventriculomegaly • Measured at the posterior aspect of the choroid plexus • Almost always symmetric • 5% of cases can be attributed to fetal infection Intracranial Calcifications • Intrauterine infection • Periventricular hyperechoic foci - the hallmark • May be located in the thalami and basal ganglia • Small with no acoustic shadowing • Most frequently seen with CMV and Toxoplasmosis Hydranencephaly • Most severe manifestation of the destructive process • Cerebral hemispheres replaced by fluid, brain stem preserved, falx present, absent or deviated, posterior fossa structures can be identified • Reported in Herpes simplex, Toxoplasmosis and CMV Microcephaly • Often associated with other CNS anomalies • Diagnosed as three SD below the mean for gestational age • Abnormal HC/AC and HC/FL ratios • Isolated microcephaly documented in CMV, Rubella and Herpes simplex Cardiac Abnormalities • Cardiomegaly, mostly in CMV • Cardiothoracic ratio • VSD, ASD, Pulmonic stenosis and coarctation of the aorta in Rubella Hepatosplenomegaly • Documented in all TORCH infection • Often a transient finding • Normograms are available   Intra-abdominal Calcifications • Typical appearance: echogenic foci with acoustic shadowing • Peritoneum, intestinal lumen, organ parenchyma, biliary tree and vascular structures • Echogenic bowel in CMV and Toxoplasmosis Hydrops, Placenta and Amniotic Fluid • Hydrops reported in most TORCH but may be transient • Placentomegaly is usually associated with intrauterine infection, but small placentae have also been reported • Hydramnios and oligohydramnios have been reported with similar frequency Fetal Growth Restriction • Estimated weight below the 10th percentile • Common feature with CMV, Rubella, Herpes simplex and Varicella • Usually not seen with Toxoplasmosis and Syphilis TOXOPLASMOSIS • Ventriculomegaly is the most frequently documented finding Intracranial calcifications, placentomegaly, liver calcifications and ascites Hyperechoic bowel have been reported Microcephaly never been reported in utero SYPHILIS • Hepatomegaly and Placentomegaly are the most frequent sonographic manifestations • Ascites, Hydrops and Hydramnios are less commonly reported • Resolution of sonographic signs have been reported with maternal antibiotic therapy RUBELLA • Incidence less than 1:100,000 live birth • Prenatal diagnosis by sonographic findings have never been reported • Potential detected abnormalities include: cardiac anomalies, microcephaly, hepatosplenomegaly, FGR, microphtalmia and cataract CMV • The most common congenital infection affecting 1% of all live births • 10% of infected neonates demonstrate clinical manifestations that potentially could be identified by prenatal sonography • Ventriculomegaly, FGR, Intracranial calcifications and oligohydramnios are the most frequently reported findings HERPES SIMPLEX • HSV are usually acquired at birth Intrauterine infections resulting in clinical signs has been reported in 100 cases worldwide • Hydranencephaly is the only sonographic sign reported antenatally • Microcephaly, interracial calcifications and FGR are potentially detectable VARICELLA ZOSTER • The most common finding is Hydramnios • Also reported: liver calcifications, hepatomegaly, hydrops, limb deformities, ventriculomegaly and FGR SUMMARY • Sonography is not a sensitive test for fetal infection • Normal fetal anatomy survey cannot predict a favorable outcome • Multiple organ systems are affected in 50% of cases THANK YOU