- The prevalence of marijuana use in females of reproductive age, as well as the potency of THC in available products, is on the rise and there is sufficient evidence to recommend abstinence for those trying to conceive, are pregnant, or are breastfeeding.
- Marijuana use can affect fertility by adversely affecting sex hormones, ovulation, and menstrual cyclicity.
- There is no significant association between preconception marijuana use or use during pregnancy and miscarriage or stillbirth.
- Prenatal marijuana use is associated with fetal growth restriction, low birth weight, preterm birth, and neonatal intensive care unit admissions.
- Marijuana use during pregnancy is not significantly associated with birth defects.
- Exposure to marijuana during pregnancy and through breastfeeding can be associated with impaired cognitive development of offspring.