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Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is a complication in which an early pregnancy implants in the scar from a prior cesarean delivery. Incidence and recognition of this condition appear to have increased over the past two decades, perhaps due to high worldwide cesarean delivery rates. The clinical presentation is variable, and many women are asymptomatic at presentation. CSP can be difficult to diagnose in a timely fashion. Ultrasound is the primary imaging modality for CSP diagnosis.
Expectantly managed CSP is associated with high rates of severe maternal morbidity such as hemorrhage, placenta accreta spectrum (PAS), and uterine rupture. Given these substantial risks, pregnancy termination is recommended after CSP diagnosis. Several surgical and medical treatments have been described for this disorder, but at this time, optimal management remains uncertain.